It is a fact that most buildings that encountered fire accident are old buildings and usually are residences. Arising a question of why recently built buildings has a lower chance of fire accident. The answer is because buildings built after 1992 are reinforced by law especially fire prevention and safety system.
However, once observe those buildings built prior to 1992, among several are not equipped with fire prevention and safety system such as lack of tools that can put off the fire or those equipment are insufficient.
Old building owners, those planning to build new buildings, and those interested in implement fire prevention and safety system should know the equipment that will be mentioned in this article.
Introduction to fire prevention and safety tools
Many know that there are several fire prevention and safety tools, firstly, Manual Operate type – fire extinguisher, fire host and fire hydrant. Once the fire started, human enable the tools. Another type is Automatic Operate such as Automatic Sprinkler System which will automatically turn on once the sprinklers sense the designated heat.
The following tools will be mostly Automatic Operate such as an automatic fire alarm and an automatic sprinkler system. Nowadays, there is a widespread use of Automatic Operate Fire Prevention and Safety System. For safety and security, residents will be alarmed about the fire accident and be ready to handle the hazard.
1. Fire Alarm System
To compare a detector with human sensing, the first to mention is a heat detector which operate similarly to human reactions such as when facing with heat and flames. It is accurate and can be installed in many areas.
During the fire, the surrounded areas’ temperature will be very high; the heat detector will expose to heat and can be categorised into 3 types according to its function.
The heat detector will alert automatically once the temperature reaches the set temperature such as at 57 or 90 degrees Celsius.
Rate of Rise Type
When the room temperature is increased by 8 degrees Celsius in every minute, the heat detector will be alarmed.
As the name suggested, it is a combination of the first and second types which can be alarmed accurately.
To correlate a smoke detector with human organs, it is serving as a nose. Once receive the smoke, it will be automatically activated. In flames, materials that started the fire create smoke which is a result of incomplete combustion, comprises of humidity, toxic, dirt, which are harmful for eyes and respiratory system if over exposed.
The algorithm of the smoke detector is an identification of particles or dusts from incomplete combustion. Once received dusts of sulphur from flames, the smoke detector signals to Fire Control Panel before a fire alarm goes off.
ถ้าเปรียบเทียบอุปกรณ์นี้กับร่างกายคนเรา อุปกรณ์นี้จะเป็นเหมือนดวงตา ซึ่งหลักการทำงานคือ การตรวจจับรังสีอินฟราเรดและรังสีอุลตราไวโลเลตที่เกิดจากเปลวไฟ ซึ่งจะทำงานได้อย่างรวดเร็วและแม่นยำเมื่อเกิดการระเบิดขึ้นของอุปกรณ์ที่ใช้ไฟฟ้า หรือการลุกไหม้ของไฟที่รวดเร็วและไม่มีควันไฟ
นอกจาก 3 อุปกรณ์ แจ้งเหตุเพลิงไหม้อัตโนมัติที่กล่าวมาข้างต้นแล้ว ยังมีอุปกรณ์แจ้งเหตุเพลิงไหม้แบบใช้มือด้วย ซึ่งมีทั้งแบบกดและแบบดึง โดยเมื่อมีผู้พบเห็นเหตุเพลิงไหม้ก่อน สามารถใช้เพื่อส่งสัญญาณไปที่ตู้ควบคุมเพื่อส่งไปยังอุปกรณ์เตือนภัยได้เลย
2. Fire Alarm
The fire alarm is similar to human voice that yell for help and alert others about the fire accident so that they can evacuate the building as soon as possible. It can be divided into 3 types.
It is common to use noise alarm which is alerted by a siren sound.
In buildings or factories that have heavy machines, workers may not hear the alarm, therefore, it is alerted by siren lighting.
Combined: Noise and Light
It is a combo of noise and light alarm which are activated at parallel once receive a notice.
3. Fire Prevention and Safety System in Buildings
The detector signals to the Fire Control Panel and set off the alarm with sound or light for evacuation. Once the heat reaches its trigger point, an Automatic Sprinkler System activates by releasing high pressure water to put off the fire.
Personnel or mechanics that able to control the situation may use fire prevention and safety tools. Location and specifications of those tools are divided into 4 categories according to types of premises.
Fire extinguishers are a preliminary fire prevention tool. It can be used when the fire is not yet severe by personnel before firefighters arrive at the location.
Fire hose reels / Fire hose rack
It is also an initial fire prevention tool in buildings that connect to fire hydrant but should be used only with experienced personnel such as fire fighters.
Fire Hydrant System
Fire Hydrant System (outside building) is ready for use in case of fire by fire fighters. It is connected with pipes around the building, or from streets with water supply to hook up with fire hosts to put off the fire.
Automatic Sprinkler System
Supply water for fire extinguishing is differ in accordance to fuel and is at reasonable price when compare to other types of fire prevention systems. The automatic sprinkler system can put off the fire at instant once the fire start.
Even though having a fire prevention and safety system is complicated and need a sum of investment, its benefits are tremendous and can prevent unforeseen situations. Also, it is a security for residents and building owners.
After this point, if there is any hesitation in regard to fire prevention and safety system, please feel free to contact us or leave comments below. Rest assured that you will be in a good hand.
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