When refers to Fire Alarm or Fire Alarm system, many often think of a siren or alarming light that can give a warning, so that the area can be evacuated.
However, Fire Alarm system consists of many more components than the siren that makes the system works efficiently and standard when there is fire in the building.
This article will help building owners or those who have responsibility to take care of safety issue of the building to understand importance of Fire Alarm system, including all the other component the system that helps minimise damages and casualty when there is fire in the building.
What is the potential of Fire Alarm System in the building?
Whenever human see flames or burning smoke from fire, human flight or fight instinct will be activated and often leads human into panic state. This can lead human to a bad decision making. Most people will panic and try to run towards the exits and may cause injury.
The other case is a knock out from inhaling too much carbon monoxide which can lead to serious casualty that can take life. Installation of Fire Alarm System can be a way to notify people early on and able them to plan a way to evacuate safely.
This flow diagram represents theory of human behavior in a situation of fire
Stage 1: Recognition
This stage is the most important to people inside the building without Fire Alarm System they may be unrealised about danger to their life.
Stage 2: Situational Assessment
This stage is where people analyse severity of the fire hazard inside the building like searching for the source of fire or look outside the window to see the amount of smoke.
Stage 3: Decision making
when source of fire is found, they need to make a decision whether it is in their capability to put out the flame or should they evacuate out of the building since the flame is beyond control.
Stage 4: Action stage
after decision is made whether to put out the fire with fire extinguisher nearby or to flee through fire exit.
What are the main components in Fire Alarm system?
Working process of fire alarm system start from smoke and heat detector, after smoke or heat is detected a signal will be sent to main controller then a siren is activated to notify people in the building and allow them to evacuate safely.
This article will classify components in Fire Alarm System into 3 main categories. First Main signal controller, fire detectors and device that report fire situation to give a clearer picture of how these 3 type of component work together.
1. Fire Alarm Control Panel: FCP
Fire Alarm Control Panel: FCP is responsible for receiving signals from the fire detector from different area of the building before signal is send to a cabinet called Fire Alarm Control Panel: FCP.
Fire Alarm Control Panel: FCP has 2 main components in Notification Appliance that works with other devices that notify about fire hazard throughout the building.
1.1 Control Panel responsible for all working process of fire alarm which are to record everything that happen in details and can be displayed using monitor or can be print out as paper
1.2 Battery Backup contains reserve power in case of fire where electricity system stops, working battery backup will allow control panel to continue to function. Moreover, this battery backup also responsible for giving out energy to all the siren in the building in case of emergency.
2. Detector Equipment
Fire detector is a device that scatter installed outside of Fire Alarm Control Panel. Mainly, it is distributed around the building with Loop Signal to transfer information to Fire Alarm Control Panel in case of fire and it uses electricity from Battery Backup in case of electricity failure.
2.1 Detector Equipment
Detector Equipment is a device responsible for detecting fire, there are many different types of detectors depends on usage that want to detect. Detector is classified in to 3 main categories smoke, heat and flame.
Smoke detector is a device that can detect any smoke particle automatically, in starting stage of fire, it is normal to have smoke which will float upward. Whenever the smoke rise high enough, it will float into the detector and smoke particles will block electrical circuit or light circuit depending on types of detector.
When enough smoke particle is detected, the smoke alarm will send back information to Fire Alarm Control Panel and turn on the siren.
Heat detector is one of the devices that raise the least false alarm so far compare to other types of detector. Heat detector works when there is a rise in temperature around the detector, once the limit of temperature is exceeded, interior of the detector will change shape and send information to Fire Alarm Control Panel to notify residents about fire.
2.2 Monitor Module
This device is made of signal receiver from a detector. Monitor Module will pass on the signal to the main control panel to activate siren.
3. Notification Appliance
After Fire Alarm Control Panel received a signal from detector, Fire Alarm Control Panel will activate Notification Appliance such as siren, bell, alarm light so people within the building can evacuate safely.
Moreover, there is another type of fire alarm. Manual Pull Station requires a human to activate by hand. This type of alarm is installed in an area that are visibly seen to many people. When anyone see a fire happening, one can pull or break the glass to easily activate the alarm.
Fire Alarm installation can be comparing to having an expert about fire notification guarding you and people inside the building 24-7. Whenever there is fire, fire alarm will notify people inside the building and give them enough time to evacuate. This leads to minimising casualties that can happen.
If you have any inquiries about fire alarm system or you are planning to install fire alarm system in your building, please contact us here. We have specialists that are more than welcome to give you any advice.
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